Program Development

Topic Progress:
Procedural programming is more or less self explanatory, it’s procedural so it will go step by step in order to solve a problem. This was a much older type of programming language that has since been outdated by object oriented programming. However this type of programming is very important and should be well understood if you want to understand the concepts of programming and what all goes into it. This process is also called imperative programming in some contexts, meaning top-down languages; this is how the programming functions, from a top to bottom procedural order. This is what makes this process self-explanatory in a way, because in order for something to work and pass along a message we assume it to go in this order.
Along with going step by step in order to solve a problem, the list of instructions must be sent to the computer in order for it to know what to do with this information. It relies on routines, or procedures, that have multiple steps that need to be carried out. Procedural programming has been somewhat of a stepping stone for other types of programming because of its simplicity. It is an older type of programming and is now outdated by another popular form which is object oriented programming.
Object oriented programming is more focused on objects to make a program instead specific steps. An object, such as a person, should have a name, or be able to walk, which can be seen as a method in oriented programming. Having a method is this programming is like having a procedure in procedural programming. One of the most popular object oriented programming languages is Java, which is used virtually everywhere. Objects within an object oriented program consists of attributes. If you have ever played D&D you know that your character has different attributes that would define them. If you have an object you can change its attributes like size, shape, and color.
Aspect Oriented Programming is a form of programming that compliments Object Oriented Programming (or OOP) by allowing the developer to modify OOP in a way where the system can grow to meet new requirements. It keeps the original model, which was developed in OOP, but allows for new syntax without having to change the compiler being used or reconfigure the editor either. In essence, it is complimentary to the previously developed OOP style and allows the application to adopt new characteristics over its lifetime without having to be completely remodeled or redeveloped. This ability for an application to be adapted to the current trend in technology prolongs the usefulness and life span of the application, which then benefit the users of that application as well.


Adaptive software development consists of cyclical speculation, collaboration, and learning rather than the more traditional approach of linear planning, building, and implementation. First, the term “speculate” is used, because outcomes can never be fully predicted to the point of “planning”—but also, of course, it would be a waste of time to wander around aimlessly without any organized approach. A mission is still defined; it is just acknowledged that the mission can never be inclusive of all possible outcomes and may need to be changed.

Sponsored Ad

Second, the term “collaborate” shows that management, per this model, does not just focus on “managing the doing”—i.e. delegating instructions and seeing fit that they are followed—but also focuses on fostering and maintaining a collaborative environment that is needed for real growth to take place. This can be difficult, because, per this model, that environment is often at the “edge of chaos”—that is, a project can’t be fully structured, because then nothing new can emerge, but things can’t teeter over the edge into anarchy.

Finally, there is a focus on learning from mistakes on the part of both the developers and the consumers. These three-phase cycles are short so that small mistakes, not large ones, are the ones from which lessons are learned.

Program Development Life Cycle – Analysis, Design, Coding

The following are six steps in the Program Development Life Cycle:

1. Analyze the problem. The computer user must figure out the problem, and the best program to fix it.
2.Design the program. A flow chart is important to use during this step of the PDLC. This is a visual diagram of the flow containing the program. All in all, this step is breaking down the problem.
3. Code the program. This is using the language of programming to write the lines of code. The code is called the listing or the source code. The computer user will run an object code for this step.
4. Debug the program. The computer user must debug. This is the process of finding the “bugs” on the computer. The bugs are important to find because this is known as errors in a program.
5. Formalize the solution. One must run the program to make sure there are no syntax and logic errors. Syntax are grammatical errors and logic errors are incorrect results.
6. Document and maintain the program. This step is the final step of gathering everything together. Internal documentation is involved in this step because it explains the reasoning one might of made a change in the program or how to write a program.

Flowcharts and Pseudocode
During the design process of the Program Development Life Cycle, it is important that programmers (and non-programmers) are able to visualize the way in which the program will work. Certain tools such as flowcharts and pseudocode are used to simplify the design process and allow the developers to see the program before any actual coding is used. A common type of design tool is the flowchart. A flowchart can be either handwritten or created with software such as Visual Logic or Flowgorithm. Many of these software programs have similar symbols to represent certain actions such as input, output, assignments, and various types of loops. Flowcharts are also useful for education tools because they focus more on the concept of programming rather than focusing on the syntax of languages. Another type of design tool is pseudocode. Pseudocode is very similar to a programming language except that it uses non-syntactical words to summarize the processes of a program. Pseudocode cannot be compiled or executed but it does serve as a good starting point for programmers.

A compiler is a special program that processes statements written in a particular programming language and turns them into machine language or “code” that a computer’s processor uses. When executing (running), the compiler first parses (or analyzes) all of the language statements syntactically one after the other and then, in one or more successive stages or “passes”, builds the output code, making sure that statements that refer to other statements are referred to correctly in the final code.

A compiler works with what are sometimes called 3GLs (FORTRAN, BASIC, COBOL, C, etc.) and higher-level languages. There are one-pass and multi-pass compilers as well as just-in-time compiler, stage compiler, and source-to-source. The compiler frontend analyzes the source code to build an internal representation of the program, called the intermediate representation. The compiler backend includes three main phases, such as analysis, optimization, and code generation. Because compilers translate source code into object code, which is unique for each type of computer, many compilers are available for the same language. For example, there is a FORTRAN compiler for PCs and another for Apple Macintosh computers. In addition, the compiler industry is quite competitive, so there are actually many compilers for each language on each type of computer. More than a dozen companies develop and sell compilers for the PC.

Program Development Life Cycle – Debugging and Testing, Implementation, Maintenance


A control structure is a diagram used to show how functions, statements, and instructions are performed in a program or module. The diagram shows exactly when an instruction is performed, and how it’s performed. Most importantly, a control structure shows the order of the instructions. There are three basic types of control structures: sequence, selection, and repetition. Choosing a specific control structure depends on what you want the program or module to accomplish. A sequence control structure is the simplest and least complex control structure. Sequence control structures are instructions that are executed one after another. The structure could be compared to following a recipe. A more complex control structure might be a selection control structure, a structure that involves conditions or decisions. This means that the structure can allow different sets of instructions to be executed depending on whether a condition is true or false. The last basic control structure is a repetition control structure, which is sometimes called an iteration control structure. This control structure is used when repeating a group of code is necessary. The code will be repeated until a condition is reached. Repetition control structures are used when looping is needed to reach a specific outcome.

Testing Program Design
Good program design needs to be specific. The program design is very important, especially because it involves the overall step-by-step directions regarding the program. A programmer must test the program design to ensure that it runs correctly and that there are no mistakes. The operation a programmer must do to complete this task is called desk checking. Desk checking allows the programmer to run through the program design step-by-step. Essentially, the programmer runs through lines of code to identify potential errors and to check the logic. The programmer uses tracing tables to keep track of any loop counters.

The goal of checking the program design is to avoid running into mistakes further on in the program development cycle. The sooner the mistake is caught in the development cycle the better. If the error is not found until later in the developmental cycle, it may delay a project. Therefore, a programmer must make sure they pay strict attention while desk checking. Advantages to desk checking include the convenience of hands-on “proof-reading” of the programmer’s own code. The programmers wrote the code themselves, so it is an advantage that they can work immediately with familiar code. A disadvantage to the desk checking system includes potential human error. Since a computer is not checking the design code, it is prone to human error.

Debugging is basically making sure that a program does not have any bugs (errors) so that it can run properly without any problems. Debugging is a large part of what a programmer does. The first step to debugging is done before you can actually debug the program; the program needs to be changed into machine language so that the computer can read it. It is converted using a language translator. The first goal of debugging is to get rid of syntax errors and any errors that prevent the program from running. Errors that prevent the program from running are compiler errors. These need to be removed right away because otherwise you cannot test any of the other parts of the program. Syntax errors occur when the programmer has not followed the correct rules of the programming language. Another kind of error is a runtime error, which occurs while the program is running and it is not noticed until after all syntax errors are corrected. Many run time errors are because of logic errors, which are errors in the logic of the program. It could occur when a formula is written incorrectly or when a wrong variable name is used.

There are different types of debugging techniques that can be used. One technique called print debugging, or also known as the printf method, finds errors by watching the print (or trace) statement live or recorded to see the execution flow of the process. This method originated in the early versions of the BASIC programming language. Remote debugging is the method of finding errors using a remote system or network, and using that different system to run the program and collect information to find the error in the code. If the program has already crashed, then post-mortem debugging can be used through various tracing techniques and by analyzing the memory dump of the program. Another technique is one created by Edward Gauss called wolf-fence debugging. Basically, this method find the error by zeroing in on the problem by continuous divisions or sectioning until the bug is found. Similar to this is the saff squeeze technique which uses progressive inlining of a failure test to isolate the problem.

Debugging a program can be done by using the tools provided in the debugging software. Typically, and especially with high-level programming languages, specific debugging tools are already included in the. Having language-specific debugging tools make it easier to detect the errors in a code, because they can look for known errors as opposed to tediously “walking through” the code manually. It also good to note that fixing one bug manually may lead to there being another bug; this is also why language-specific debugging tools are helpful. There are also debugging software for embedded system as well.

Testing/Implementation and Maintenance
Relating to getting a program up and running, many things need to happen before it can be used. One step is to test the program. After the debugging process occurs, another programmer needs to test the program for any additional errors that could be involved in the background of the program. This person needs to perform all of the tasks that an actual user of the program would use and follow. To ensure privacy rights, test data is used in the testing process. However, this still has the same structure and feel to the actual data. The tester needs to check for possible input errors as well, as this would create many problems and issues in the future had it not been checked.

Sponsored Ad

Companies usually implement different types of tests. An Alpha test is first conducted, which is on-site at the company, and Beta tests are sent out to different states or countries to ensure the program is 100% ready for use. The Alpha test occurs before the Beta test. Once the debugging and testing are finished, the program is now in the system and the program implementation and maintenance phase are completed. Program maintenance still needs to be kept up, in case of future errors. This is the most costly to organizations because the programmers need to keep improving and fixing issues within the program.

As stated earlier, a program goes through extensive testing before it is released to the public for use. The two types of testing are called Alpha and Beta testing. First, it is important to know what each test does. Alpha testing is done “in house” so to speak. It is done within a company prior to sending it to Beta testing and its intention in this early stage is to improve the product as much as possible to get it Beta ready. Beta testing is done “out of house” and gives real customers a chance to try the program with the set intention of catching any bugs or errors prior to it being fully released.

Alpha testing is the phase that takes the longest and can sometimes last three to five times longer than Beta. However, Beta testing can be completed in just a few weeks to a month, assuming no major bugs are detected. Alpha testing is typically performed by engineers or other employees of the company while Beta testing occurs in the “real world”, temporarily being released to the public to get the widest range of feedback possible. During Alpha testing, it is common for there to be a good amount of bugs detected as well missing features. During Beta testing, there should be a big decrease in the amount of these problems. When testing in the Alpha phase is over, companies have a good sense of how the product performs.

After Beta testing is complete, the company has a good idea of what the customer thinks and what they experienced while testing. If all goes well in both phases, the product is ready to be released and enjoyed by the public. The length of time and effort that is put forth in order for the world to enjoy and utilize the many programs on computers today is often overlooked. Information such as this gives the user a new appreciation for computers and computer programs.


Adobe Air
Adobe Air allows the user to package all of the code into applications for Windows, MacOS, iOS, and Android desktops. Adobe air reaches billions of desktops and apps for 500 million devices. There are many applications that can be used with adobe air. Adobe air can open books online and allow the user to be able to read them easily that way. You can change the font size, quickly get to a page, and go to a full screen while reading the book. Adobe Air can also open desktop blog editor and allow the user to use HTML/Javescript. An example of this type of application is Bee. It can use word to start a blog and the user can add photos easily and allow the blog to flow evenly. BkMark is another application that can be used on Adobe Air. It allows the user to make bookmarks for favorite websites. It store actual data and allows you to reopen any website that you want to go to. It is really convenient application for users who want something fast to go to a commonly used website. Finally another example of an application that can be used with Adobe Air is dAIRnotes. This allows the user to make notes on the computer and keep track of all of the notes.

Application Lifecycle Management (ALM) Tools

Programmers are often overworked and need all the help they can get. This is where ALM tools come into play.

ALM tools are, surprise surprise, tools that manage an application throughout its entire life cycle. They are very helpful for programmers who are under increasing amounts of stress to develop new programs quickly. The helpfulness comes from wide range of features that the ALM tools can offer. One example is how many ALM programs come with built-in program design tools, along with the ability to generate the program code from the finished design to create the application. This code generating ability saves companies time and money that they don’t have to put towards outsourcing, especially if they’ve got a small number of programming staff. In addition to code generators, another important tool that can be included in ALM programs is requirements management. Essentially, requirements management is defined in exactly that way, referring to keeping track of and managing program requirements as they are defined and then modified throughout the process of developing the program. The larger the company, the nicer ALM toolset they can purchase; there are many ALM toolsets on the market to choose from.

Application Generators
Application generators are extremely useful devices. They can be used by amateurs/people with less experience or by professionals. The point of an application generator is to make a task simpler than it is. Even if it is just changing a few basic formatting characteristics, these generators can make it so that the user only has to type in a specific key or command in order for all the actions to happen at once with much less effort. One of these useful generators is called a Macro. A macro is an application generator that simply makes it possible to perform repeated actions instantaneously on a single command. The idea is that it will make reformatting or calculating things much easier, thus saving the operator time. Most Microsoft programs contain a macro recorder which allows users to easily record all inputs and commands they use and associate them with a keyboard shortcut for future repetition. Other application generators create reports and form which make things such as memberships, records (such as medical treatments, history, and vaccinations), and even insurance claims more organized and easier to access by those who should be able to access them.

RIA Tools
Other types of tools include device software development tools, software development kits (SDKs), application program interfaces (APIs), and rich internet application tools (RIAs). A rich internet application offers many of the same features associated with desktop applications. They are more interacting and engaging that other web-based applilcations. Some big names in this area are Microsoft, Adobe, and JavaScript. Microsoft actually has a very put together developer’s website that goes into some detail about how to create such applications. It includes information such as things to consider before starting an RIA, such as the audience.

A few key features about RIAs include direct interaction, partial-page updating, better feedback, consistency of look and feel, offline use, and performance impact.

Direct interaction allows for a wider range of controls, such as editing or drag-and-drop tools. Partial-page updating allows for real-time streaming and cuts down on load time waiting for a response from a server. RIAs can provide users with quicker feedback because of the partial-page updates. Also, it is sometimes possible to use RIAs offline when there is no connectivity. Once downside to RIAs is that smaller devices, such as mobile phones, often times do not have the means necessary to run such applications.

Earn a Certificate of Completion for completing this course. Pass a 50-question test on this course with a score of 70 or higher and receive a certificate of completion. Visit our Computer Information Systems Certificate of Completion page for more information.

The text for this course is available from WikiBooks under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License.

Sponsored Ad